# Functions in 1997 (version 8.0)

332 built-in worksheet functions (237 + 95).

The Analysis ToolPak add-in contained 95 functions.

ABS | The absolute value or a number without its sign. |

ACCRINT | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The accrued interest for a security that pays interest periodically. |

ACCRINTM | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity. |

ACOS | The arc-cosine of a number. |

ACOSH | The hyperbolic arc-cosine of a number. |

ADDRESS | The cell reference given a row and column number. |

AMORDEGRC | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The depreciation of an asset in a single period (straight-line, implicit coefficient). |

AMORLINC | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The depreciation of an asset in a single period (straight-line). |

AND | The logical AND for any number of arguments. |

AREAS | The number of areas in a cell range or reference. |

ASC | (Analysis ToolPak - Text) The text string converted from double byte to single byte characters. |

ASIN | The arc-sine of a number. |

ASINH | The hyperbolic arc-sine of a number. |

ATAN | The arc-tangent of a number. |

ATAN2 | The arc-tangent of the specified x and y co-ordinates. |

ATANH | The hyperbolic arc-tangent of a number. |

AVEDEV | The average deviation of the numbers in a list, table or cell range. |

AVERAGE | The arithmetic mean of non blank cells in a list, table or cell range. |

AVERAGEA | The arithmetic mean of non blank cells in a list, table or cell range (including logical values and text). |

BESSELI | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The Bessel function evaluated for purely imaginary arguments. |

BESSELJ | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The modified Bessel function represented by J(x). |

BESSELK | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The modified Bessel function represented by K(x). |

BESSELY | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The modified Bessel function represented by Y(x). |

BETADIST | (BETA.DIST) The cumulative probability function for a beta distribution (only cumulative). |

BETAINV | (BETA.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a beta distribution. |

BIN2DEC | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from binary to decimal. |

BIN2HEX | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from binary to hexadecimal. |

BIN2OCT | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from binary to octal. |

BINOMDIST | (BINOM.DIST) The probability of getting a specific number of successes using a binomial distribution. |

CALL | (Removed in 2003) The specification for a function or command using a registration ID. |

CEILING | (CEILING.MATH) The number rounded up to the nearest integer or significant figure. |

CELL | The text string indicating information about a cell. |

CHAR | The character with the corresponding ANSI/ASCII number. |

CHIDIST | (CHISQ.DIST.RT) The probability distribution function for a chi-squared distribution (right tailed) (no cumulative). |

CHIINV | (CHISQ.INV.RT) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a chi-squared distribution (right tailed). |

CHITEST | (CHISQ.TEST) The probability value from a chi-squared distribution. |

CHOOSE | The value in a row (or column) based on an index number. |

CLEAN | The text string with all the non-printable characters removed. |

CODE | The ANSI/ASCII number for the first character in a text string. |

COLUMN | The column number of a cell reference. |

COLUMNS | The number of columns in a cell range or reference. |

COMBIN | The number of combinations for a given number of items (without repetition). |

COMPLEX | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The complex number given real and imaginary coefficients. |

CONCATENATE | (CONCAT) The text string that is a concatenation of several strings. |

CONFIDENCE | (CONFIDENCE.NORM) The confidence interval for a population mean. |

CONVERT | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number in one measurement system converted to another. |

CORREL | The correlation coefficient between two data sets. |

COS | The cosine of a number. |

COSH | The hyperbolic cosine of a number. |

COUNT | The number of numerical values in a list, table or cell range. |

COUNTA | The number of numerical values in a list, table or cell range (including logical values and text). |

COUNTBLANK | The number of blank cells in a list, table or cell range. |

COUNTIF | (COUNTIFS) The number of numerical values in a range that satisfies one condition. |

COUPDAYBS | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The number of days between the previous coupon date and the settlement date. |

COUPDAYS | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The number of days between the coupon dates on either side of the settlement date. |

COUPDAYSNC | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The number of days between the settlement date and the next coupon date. |

COUPNCD | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The next coupon date after the settlement date. |

COUPNUM | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The number of coupons between the settlement date and the maturity date. |

COUPPCD | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The previous coupon date before the settlement date. |

COVAR | (COVARIANCE.P) The average of the products of deviations for each data point pair. |

CRITBINOM | (BINOM.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a binomial distribution (renamed). |

CUMIPMT | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The cumulative interest paid on a loan between two dates. |

CUMPRINC | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The cumulative principal paid on a loan between two dates. |

DATE | The date as a date serial number given a year, month, day. |

DATEDIF | (Compatibility) The number of days, months or years between two dates. |

DATEVALUE | The date serial number given a date in text format. |

DAVERAGE | The arithmetic mean of non blank cells in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DAY | The day as an integer given a date serial number. |

DAYS360 | The number of days between two dates, based on 30 day months. |

DB | The depreciation of an asset in a single period (declining balance method). |

DCOUNT | The total number of non blank cells in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DCOUNTA | The total number of non blank cells in a database column satisfying certain conditions (including logical values and text). |

DDB | The depreciation of an asset in a single period (double or triple declining balance method). |

DEC2BIN | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from decimal to binary. |

DEC2HEX | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from decimal to hexadecimal. |

DEC2OCT | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from decimal to octal. |

DEGREES | The number of degrees given a number of radians. |

DELTA | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The numerical value indicating if two numbers are equal. |

DEVSQ | The sum of the squared deviations from the mean. |

DGET | The single value in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DISC | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate (or discount rate) for a security held to maturity. |

DMAX | The maximum value in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DMIN | The minimum value in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DOLLAR | The text string of a number with the dollar formatting $0,000.00. |

DOLLARDE | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The dollar fraction expressed as a decimal. |

DOLLARFR | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The dollar decimal expressed as a fraction. |

DPRODUCT | The product of values in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DSTDEV | The standard deviation of a database column satisfying certain conditions based on a sample. |

DSTDEVP | The standard deviation of a database column satisfying certain conditions based on an entire population. |

DSUM | The sum of values in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DURATION | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The annual duration of a security that pays interest periodically. |

DVAR | The variance of a database column satisfying certain conditions based on a sample. |

DVARP | The variance of a database column satisfying certain conditions based on an entire population. |

EDATE | (Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The date serial number that is a certain number of months before or after a date. |

EFFECT | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The effective interest rate given a nominal interest rate and compounding frequency. |

EOMONTH | (Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The date serial number of the last day of a month before or after a date. |

ERF | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The value of the error function integrated between two limits. |

ERFC | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The complementary error function integrated between a limit and infinity. |

ERROR.TYPE | The number corresponding to a particular error value in a cell. |

EUROCONVERT | (Euro Currency Add-in) The number converted to euros. |

EVEN | The number rounded up to the nearest even integer. |

EXACT | The value True or False based on whether two strings match exactly. |

EXP | The exponential number raised to a particular power. |

EXPONDIST | (EXPON.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for an exponential distribution. |

FACT | The factorial of a positive whole number. |

FACTDOUBLE | (Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The double factorial of a positive whole number. |

FALSE | The logical value False. |

FDIST | (F.DIST) The probability distribution function for an f distribution (left tailed) (no cumulative). |

FIND | The starting position of a substring within a larger text string. |

FINV | (F.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for an f distribution (left tailed). |

FISHER | The fisher transformation. |

FISHERINV | The inverse of the fisher transformation. |

FIXED | The text string of a number rounded to a fixed number of decimal places. |

FLOOR | (FLOOR.MATH) The number rounded down to the nearest integer or significant figure. |

FORECAST | (FORECAST.LINEAR) The future y-value along a linear trend using existing values. |

FREQUENCY | The number of times a particular value occurs in a list, table or cell range. |

FTEST | (F.TEST) The probability value from an f distribution. |

FV | The future value of a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals. |

FVSCHEDULE | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The future value of an initial principal after applying compound interest rates. |

GAMMADIST | (GAMMA.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for a gamma distribution. |

GAMMAINV | (GAMMA.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution for a gamma distribution. |

GAMMALN | (GAMMALN.PRECISE) The natural logarithm of the gamma function. |

GCD | (Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The greatest common divisor of two or more numbers. |

GEOMEAN | The geometric mean of an array of numbers. |

GESTEP | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The value True or False depending if the number is greater than a threshold value. |

GETPIVOTDATA | The data obtained from a pivot table. |

GROWTH | The predicted exponential growth using existing data. |

HARMEAN | The harmonic mean of a data set. |

HEX2BIN | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from hexadecimal to binary. |

HEX2DEC | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from hexadecimal to decimal. |

HEX2OCT | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from hexadecimal to octal. |

HLOOKUP | The value in the same column after finding a matching value in the first row. |

HOUR | The hour as an integer given a date serial number. |

HYPERLINK | The hyperlink linked to a cell, document or webpage. |

HYPGEOMDIST | (HYPGEOM.DIST) The cumulative probability function for a hypergeometric distribution (only cumulative). |

IF | The value based on whether a condition is True or False. |

IMABS | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The absolute value of a complex number. |

IMAGINARY | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The imaginary coefficient of a complex number. |

IMARGUMENT | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The theta argument in radians. |

IMCONJUGATE | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The complex conjugate of a complex number. |

IMCOS | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The cosine of a complex number. |

IMDIV | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The quotient of two complex numbers. |

IMEXP | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The exponential of a complex number. |

IMLN | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The natural logarithm of a complex number. |

IMLOG10 | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The base-10 logarithm of a complex number. |

IMLOG2 | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The base-2 logarithm of a complex number. |

IMPOWER | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The complex number raised to an integer number. |

IMPRODUCT | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The product of two or more complex numbers. |

IMREAL | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The real coefficient of a complex number. |

IMSIN | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The sine of a complex number. |

IMSQRT | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The square root of a complex number. |

IMSUB | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The difference of two complex numbers. |

IMSUM | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The sum of two or more complex numbers. |

INDEX | The value from a cell range which is the intersection of a row AND a column. |

INDIRECT | The text string of the contents of a given cell reference. |

INFO | The text string returning useful information about the environment. |

INT | The number rounded down to the nearest integer. |

INTERCEPT | The intersection with the y-axis using a linear regression plotted through known values. |

INTRATE | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate for a security held to maturity. |

IPMT | The interest amount paid on a given period on a loan with fixed interest. |

IRR | The interest rate for a series of unequal cash flows at regular intervals (implicit reinvestment rate). |

ISBLANK | The boolean True or False depending if the value is blank. |

ISERR | The boolean True or False depending if the value is an error (not #N/A). |

ISERROR | The boolean True or False depending if the value is an error. |

ISEVEN | (Analysis ToolPak - Information) The boolean True or False depending if the value is an even number. |

ISLOGICAL | The boolean True or False depending if the value is True or False. |

ISNA | The boolean True or False depending if the value is #N/A. |

ISNONTEXT | The boolean True or False depending if the value is non text. |

ISNUMBER | The boolean True or False depending if the value is a number. |

ISODD | (Analysis ToolPak - Information) The boolean True or False depending if the value is an odd number. |

ISPMT | (IPMT) The interest paid for a given period in a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals (incorrectly). |

ISREF | The boolean True or False depending if the value is a cell reference. |

ISTEXT | The boolean True or False depending if the value is text. |

KURT | The kurtosis for a list or array of numbers. |

LARGE | The kth largest value in a list or array of numbers. |

LCM | (Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The least common multiple of two or more numbers. |

LEFT | The first or left most characters in a text string. |

LEN | The number of characters in a text string. |

LINEST | The array of values for a straight line that best fits your data. |

LN | The natural logarithm of a number. |

LOG | The logarithm of a number to any base. |

LOG10 | The logarithm of a number to the base 10. |

LOGEST | The array of values for an exponential curve that best fits your data. |

LOGINV | (LOGNORM.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a lognormal distribution. |

LOGNORMDIST | (LOGNORM.DIST) The cumulative probability function for a lognormal distribution (only cumulative). |

LOOKUP | The value in a row (or column) that matches a value in a column (or row). |

LOWER | The text string with all the characters converted to lowercase. |

MATCH | The position of a value in a list, table or cell range. |

MAX | The largest value in a list or array of numbers. |

MAXA | The largest value in a list or array of numbers (including logical values and text). |

MDETERM | The matrix determinant of an array. |

MDURATION | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The modified duration for a security that pays interest periodically. |

MEDIAN | The median value in a list or array of numbers. |

MID | The characters from the middle of a text string. |

MIN | The smallest value in a list or array of numbers. |

MINA | The smallest value in a list or array of numbers (including logical values and text). |

MINUTE | The minute as an integer given a date serial number. |

MINVERSE | The inverse matrix of an array. |

MIRR | The interest rate for a series of unequal cash flows at regular intervals (explicit reinvestment rate). |

MMULT | The matrix product of two arrays. |

MOD | The remainder after division. |

MODE | (MODE.SNGL) The value that occurs most frequently in a list or array of numbers. |

MONTH | The month as an integer given a date serial number. |

MROUND | (Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The number rounded to the desired multiple. |

MULTINOMIAL | (Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The multinomial of a set of numbers in a list or cell range. |

N | The value converted to a number. |

NA | The error value #N/A. |

NEGBINOMDIST | (NEGBINOM.DIST) The probability distribution function for a negative binomial distribution (no cumulative). |

NETWORKDAYS | (Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The total number of working days between two dates excluding weekends and holidays. |

NOMINAL | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The nominal interest rate over a period given an annual interest rate. |

NORMDIST | (NORM.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for a normal distribution. |

NORMINV | (NORM.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a normal distribution. |

NORMSDIST | (NORM.S.DIST) The probability distribution function for a standard normal distribution (no cumulative). |

NORMSINV | (NORM.S.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a standard normal distribution. |

NOT | The opposite of a True or False value. |

NOW | The date serial number of the current system date and time. |

NPER | The number of periods for an investment. |

NPV | The net present value of a series of unequal cash flows at regular intervals. |

OCT2BIN | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from octal to binary. |

OCT2DEC | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from octal to decimal. |

OCT2HEX | (Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from octal to hexadecimal. |

ODD | The number rounded up to the nearest odd integer. |

ODDFPRICE | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period. |

ODDFYIELD | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The yield of a security with an odd first period. |

ODDLPRICE | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period. |

ODDLYIELD | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The yield of a security with an odd last period. |

OFFSET | The value in a cell which is an offset from another cell. |

OR | The logical OR for any number of arguments. |

PEARSON | The pearson product moment correlation coefficient. |

PERCENTILE | (PERCENTILE.INC) The number corresponding to a particular percentage from an array of numbers (inclusive). |

PERCENTRANK | (PERCENTRANK.INC) The percentage rank of a value in an array of numbers (inclusive). |

PERMUT | The number of permutations for a subset of objects or events. |

PI | The number PI (3.141592). |

PMT | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The full amount (principal + interest) paid every period on a loan with fixed interest. |

POISSON | (POISSON.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for a poisson distribution. |

POWER | The number raised to a given power. |

PPMT | The principal amount paid on a given period on a loan with fixed interest. |

PRICE | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price of a security that pays periodic interest. |

PRICEDISC | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price of a discounted security (no interest payments). |

PRICEMAT | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price of a security that pays interest at maturity. |

PROB | The probability that values in a range are between two limits. |

PRODUCT | The product of all the numbers in a list or cell range. |

PROPER | The text string with the first letter of every word as a capital letter. |

PV | The present value of a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals. |

QUARTILE | (QUARTILE.INC) The quartile of a data set (inclusive). |

QUOTIENT | (Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The integer portion after division. |

RADIANS | The number of radians given the number of degrees. |

RAND | The random number >=0 and <1. |

RANDBETWEEN | (Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The random number between two specified numbers (inclusive). |

RANK | (RANK.EQ) The rank of a value in a list, table or cell range (in descending order) (equal ranking). |

RATE | The interest rate for a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals. |

RECEIVED | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The amount received at the end when a security is held to maturity. |

REGISTER.ID | (Removed in 2003) The result after running an Excel 4.0 Macro function. |

REPLACE | The text string after replacing characters in a specific location. |

REPT | The text string repeated a number of times. |

RIGHT | The last or right most characters in a text string. |

ROMAN | The text string converting a binary number to a roman numeral. |

ROUND | The number rounded to a specified number of digits. |

ROUNDDOWN | The number rounded down to the nearest integer. |

ROUNDUP | The number rounded up to the nearest integer. |

ROW | The row number of a cell reference. |

ROWS | The number of rows in a cell range or reference. |

RSQ | The square of pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points in known y's and known x's. |

SEARCH | The starting position of a substring within a larger text string. |

SECOND | The number of seconds as an integer given a date serial number. |

SERIESSUM | (Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The sum of a power series based on a formula. |

SIGN | The numerical value indicating if a number is positive or negative. |

SIN | The sine of a number. |

SINH | The hyperbolic sine of a number. |

SKEW | The number representing the skewness of a distribution based on a sample. |

SLN | The depreciation of an asset in a single period (straight-line method). |

SLOPE | The slope of a linear regression line through the given data points. |

SMALL | The kth smallest value in a list or array of numbers. |

SQL.REQUEST | (Removed in 2003) The result after connecting to a data source and executes a SQL query. |

SQRT | The positive square root of a number. |

SQRTPI | (Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The square root of a number multiplied by PI. |

STANDARDIZE | The normalized value from a distributed characterised by a mean and a standard deviation. |

STDEV | (STDEV.S) The standard deviation based on a sample. |

STDEVA | The standard deviation based on a sample (including logical values and text). |

STDEVP | (STDEV.P) The standard deviation based on an entire population. |

STDEVPA | The standard deviation based on an entire population (including logical values and text). |

STEYX | The standard error of a regression. |

SUBSTITUTE | The text string after replacing instances of a substring. |

SUBTOTAL | (AGGREGATE) The subtotal of values in a list, table or cell range (renamed). |

SUM | The total value of the numbers in a list, table or cell range. |

SUMIF | (SUMIFS) The total value of the numbers that satisfies one condition. |

SUMPRODUCT | The sum of the product of one or more arrays of values. |

SUMSQ | The sum of the squares of all the values in a list, table or cell range. |

SUMX2MY2 | The sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. |

SUMX2PY2 | The sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. |

SUMXMY2 | The sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays. |

SYD | The depreciation of an asset in a single period (sum-of-years digits method). |

T | The text string of the value given. |

TAN | The tangent of a number. |

TANH | The hyperbolic tangent of a number. |

TBILLEQ | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The yield (bond-equivalent) for a treasury bill. |

TBILLPRICE | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price per $100 face value for a treasury bill. |

TBILLYIELD | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The yield for a treasury bill. |

TDIST | (T.DIST.2T) The percentage points probability for the t distribution. |

TEXT | The number as a formatted text string. |

TIME | The time as a decimal given an hour, minute, second. |

TIMEVALUE | The time as a decimal given a time in text format. |

TINV | (T.INV.2T) The t-value of the distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom. |

TODAY | The date serial number representing today's date. |

TRANSPOSE | The array with its orientation changed. |

TREND | The y-values along a linear trend given a set of x-values. |

TRIM | The text string with all extra spaces removed from the beginning, middle and end. |

TRIMMEAN | The mean of the interior of a data set. |

TRUE | The logical value True. |

TRUNC | The number with any decimal places removed. |

TTEST | (T.TEST) The probability value from a t distribution. |

TYPE | The number indicating the data type of the value. |

UPPER | The text string with all the characters converted to uppercase. |

VALUE | (NUMBERVALUE) The number that a text string represents (renamed). |

VAR | (VAR.S) The variance based on a sample. |

VARA | The variance based on a sample (including logical values and text). |

VARP | (VAR.P) The variance based on an entire population. |

VARPA | The variance based on an entire population (including logical values and text). |

VDB | The depreciation of an asset in a single period (variable declining balance method). |

VLOOKUP | The value in the same row after finding a matching value in the first column. |

WEEKDAY | The day of the week for a given date. |

WEEKNUM | (Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The week number in the year for a given date. |

WEIBULL | (WEIBULL.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for a weibull distribution. |

WORKDAY | (Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The date serial number that is a given number of working days before or after a date. |

XIRR | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate for a series of unequal cash flows at irregular intervals (implicit reinvestment rate). |

XNPV | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The net present value of a series of unequal cash flows at irregular intervals. |

YEAR | The year as an integer given a date serial number. |

YEARFRAC | (Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The number of years as a decimal between two dates. |

YIELD | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate (annual) for a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals. |

YIELDDISC | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate (annual) for a discounted security (no interest payments). |

YIELDMAT | (Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate (annual) for a security that pays interest at maturity. |

ZTEST | (Z.TEST) The probability that the supplied hypothesized sample mean is greater than the mean of the supplied data values. |

ABSThe absolute value or a number without its sign. |

ACCRINT( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The accrued interest for a security that pays interest periodically. |

ACCRINTM( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity. |

ACOSThe arc-cosine of a number. |

ACOSHThe hyperbolic arc-cosine of a number. |

ADDRESSThe cell reference given a row and column number. |

AMORDEGRC( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The depreciation of an asset in a single period (straight-line, implicit coefficient). |

AMORLINC( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The depreciation of an asset in a single period (straight-line). |

ANDThe logical AND for any number of arguments. |

AREASThe number of areas in a cell range or reference. |

ASC( Analysis ToolPak - Text) The text string converted from double byte to single byte characters. |

ASINThe arc-sine of a number. |

ASINHThe hyperbolic arc-sine of a number. |

ATANThe arc-tangent of a number. |

ATAN2The arc-tangent of the specified x and y co-ordinates. |

ATANHThe hyperbolic arc-tangent of a number. |

AVEDEVThe average deviation of the numbers in a list, table or cell range. |

AVERAGEThe arithmetic mean of non blank cells in a list, table or cell range. |

AVERAGEAThe arithmetic mean of non blank cells in a list, table or cell range (including logical values and text). |

BESSELI( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The Bessel function evaluated for purely imaginary arguments. |

BESSELJ( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The modified Bessel function represented by J(x). |

BESSELK( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The modified Bessel function represented by K(x). |

BESSELY( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The modified Bessel function represented by Y(x). |

BETADIST(BETA.DIST) The cumulative probability function for a beta distribution (only cumulative). |

BETAINV(BETA.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a beta distribution. |

BIN2DEC( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from binary to decimal. |

BIN2HEX( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from binary to hexadecimal. |

BIN2OCT( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from binary to octal. |

BINOMDIST(BINOM.DIST) The probability of getting a specific number of successes using a binomial distribution. |

CALL(Removed in 2003) The specification for a function or command using a registration ID. |

CEILING(CEILING.MATH) The number rounded up to the nearest integer or significant figure. |

CELLThe text string indicating information about a cell. |

CHARThe character with the corresponding ANSI/ASCII number. |

CHIDIST(CHISQ.DIST.RT) The probability distribution function for a chi-squared distribution (right tailed) (no cumulative). |

CHIINV(CHISQ.INV.RT) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a chi-squared distribution (right tailed). |

CHITEST(CHISQ.TEST) The probability value from a chi-squared distribution. |

CHOOSEThe value in a row (or column) based on an index number. |

CLEANThe text string with all the non-printable characters removed. |

CODEThe ANSI/ASCII number for the first character in a text string. |

COLUMNThe column number of a cell reference. |

COLUMNSThe number of columns in a cell range or reference. |

COMBINThe number of combinations for a given number of items (without repetition). |

COMPLEX( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The complex number given real and imaginary coefficients. |

CONCATENATE(CONCAT) The text string that is a concatenation of several strings. |

CONFIDENCE(CONFIDENCE.NORM) The confidence interval for a population mean. |

CONVERT( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number in one measurement system converted to another. |

CORRELThe correlation coefficient between two data sets. |

COSThe cosine of a number. |

COSHThe hyperbolic cosine of a number. |

COUNTThe number of numerical values in a list, table or cell range. |

COUNTAThe number of numerical values in a list, table or cell range (including logical values and text). |

COUNTBLANKThe number of blank cells in a list, table or cell range. |

COUNTIF(COUNTIFS) The number of numerical values in a range that satisfies one condition. |

COUPDAYBS( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The number of days between the previous coupon date and the settlement date. |

COUPDAYS( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The number of days between the coupon dates on either side of the settlement date. |

COUPDAYSNC( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The number of days between the settlement date and the next coupon date. |

COUPNCD( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The next coupon date after the settlement date. |

COUPNUM( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The number of coupons between the settlement date and the maturity date. |

COUPPCD( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The previous coupon date before the settlement date. |

COVAR(COVARIANCE.P) The average of the products of deviations for each data point pair. |

CRITBINOM(BINOM.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a binomial distribution (renamed). |

CUMIPMT( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The cumulative interest paid on a loan between two dates. |

CUMPRINC( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The cumulative principal paid on a loan between two dates. |

DATEThe date as a date serial number given a year, month, day. |

DATEDIF(Compatibility) The number of days, months or years between two dates. |

DATEVALUEThe date serial number given a date in text format. |

DAVERAGEThe arithmetic mean of non blank cells in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DAYThe day as an integer given a date serial number. |

DAYS360The number of days between two dates, based on 30 day months. |

DBThe depreciation of an asset in a single period (declining balance method). |

DCOUNTThe total number of non blank cells in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DCOUNTAThe total number of non blank cells in a database column satisfying certain conditions (including logical values and text). |

DDBThe depreciation of an asset in a single period (double or triple declining balance method). |

DEC2BIN( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from decimal to binary. |

DEC2HEX( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from decimal to hexadecimal. |

DEC2OCT( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from decimal to octal. |

DEGREESThe number of degrees given a number of radians. |

DELTA( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The numerical value indicating if two numbers are equal. |

DEVSQThe sum of the squared deviations from the mean. |

DGETThe single value in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DISC( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate (or discount rate) for a security held to maturity. |

DMAXThe maximum value in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DMINThe minimum value in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DOLLARThe text string of a number with the dollar formatting $0,000.00. |

DOLLARDE( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The dollar fraction expressed as a decimal. |

DOLLARFR( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The dollar decimal expressed as a fraction. |

DPRODUCTThe product of values in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DSTDEVThe standard deviation of a database column satisfying certain conditions based on a sample. |

DSTDEVPThe standard deviation of a database column satisfying certain conditions based on an entire population. |

DSUMThe sum of values in a database column satisfying certain conditions. |

DURATION( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The annual duration of a security that pays interest periodically. |

DVARThe variance of a database column satisfying certain conditions based on a sample. |

DVARPThe variance of a database column satisfying certain conditions based on an entire population. |

EDATE( Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The date serial number that is a certain number of months before or after a date. |

EFFECT( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The effective interest rate given a nominal interest rate and compounding frequency. |

EOMONTH( Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The date serial number of the last day of a month before or after a date. |

ERF( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The value of the error function integrated between two limits. |

ERFC( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The complementary error function integrated between a limit and infinity. |

ERROR.TYPEThe number corresponding to a particular error value in a cell. |

EUROCONVERT( Euro Currency Add-in) The number converted to euros. |

EVENThe number rounded up to the nearest even integer. |

EXACTThe value True or False based on whether two strings match exactly. |

EXPThe exponential number raised to a particular power. |

EXPONDIST(EXPON.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for an exponential distribution. |

FACTThe factorial of a positive whole number. |

FACTDOUBLE( Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The double factorial of a positive whole number. |

FALSEThe logical value False. |

FDIST(F.DIST) The probability distribution function for an f distribution (left tailed) (no cumulative). |

FINDThe starting position of a substring within a larger text string. |

FINV(F.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for an f distribution (left tailed). |

FISHERThe fisher transformation. |

FISHERINVThe inverse of the fisher transformation. |

FIXEDThe text string of a number rounded to a fixed number of decimal places. |

FLOOR(FLOOR.MATH) The number rounded down to the nearest integer or significant figure. |

FORECAST(FORECAST.LINEAR) The future y-value along a linear trend using existing values. |

FREQUENCYThe number of times a particular value occurs in a list, table or cell range. |

FTEST(F.TEST) The probability value from an f distribution. |

FVThe future value of a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals. |

FVSCHEDULE( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The future value of an initial principal after applying compound interest rates. |

GAMMADIST(GAMMA.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for a gamma distribution. |

GAMMAINV(GAMMA.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution for a gamma distribution. |

GAMMALN(GAMMALN.PRECISE) The natural logarithm of the gamma function. |

GCD( Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The greatest common divisor of two or more numbers. |

GEOMEANThe geometric mean of an array of numbers. |

GESTEP( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The value True or False depending if the number is greater than a threshold value. |

GETPIVOTDATAThe data obtained from a pivot table. |

GROWTHThe predicted exponential growth using existing data. |

HARMEANThe harmonic mean of a data set. |

HEX2BIN( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from hexadecimal to binary. |

HEX2DEC( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from hexadecimal to decimal. |

HEX2OCT( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from hexadecimal to octal. |

HLOOKUPThe value in the same column after finding a matching value in the first row. |

HOURThe hour as an integer given a date serial number. |

HYPERLINKThe hyperlink linked to a cell, document or webpage. |

HYPGEOMDIST(HYPGEOM.DIST) The cumulative probability function for a hypergeometric distribution (only cumulative). |

IFThe value based on whether a condition is True or False. |

IMABS( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The absolute value of a complex number. |

IMAGINARY( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The imaginary coefficient of a complex number. |

IMARGUMENT( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The theta argument in radians. |

IMCONJUGATE( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The complex conjugate of a complex number. |

IMCOS( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The cosine of a complex number. |

IMDIV( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The quotient of two complex numbers. |

IMEXP( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The exponential of a complex number. |

IMLN( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The natural logarithm of a complex number. |

IMLOG10( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The base-10 logarithm of a complex number. |

IMLOG2( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The base-2 logarithm of a complex number. |

IMPOWER( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The complex number raised to an integer number. |

IMPRODUCT( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The product of two or more complex numbers. |

IMREAL( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The real coefficient of a complex number. |

IMSIN( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The sine of a complex number. |

IMSQRT( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The square root of a complex number. |

IMSUB( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The difference of two complex numbers. |

IMSUM( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The sum of two or more complex numbers. |

INDEXThe value from a cell range which is the intersection of a row AND a column. |

INDIRECTThe text string of the contents of a given cell reference. |

INFOThe text string returning useful information about the environment. |

INTThe number rounded down to the nearest integer. |

INTERCEPTThe intersection with the y-axis using a linear regression plotted through known values. |

INTRATE( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate for a security held to maturity. |

IPMTThe interest amount paid on a given period on a loan with fixed interest. |

IRRThe interest rate for a series of unequal cash flows at regular intervals (implicit reinvestment rate). |

ISBLANKThe boolean True or False depending if the value is blank. |

ISERRThe boolean True or False depending if the value is an error (not #N/A). |

ISERRORThe boolean True or False depending if the value is an error. |

ISEVEN( Analysis ToolPak - Information) The boolean True or False depending if the value is an even number. |

ISLOGICALThe boolean True or False depending if the value is True or False. |

ISNAThe boolean True or False depending if the value is #N/A. |

ISNONTEXTThe boolean True or False depending if the value is non text. |

ISNUMBERThe boolean True or False depending if the value is a number. |

ISODD( Analysis ToolPak - Information) The boolean True or False depending if the value is an odd number. |

ISPMT(IPMT) The interest paid for a given period in a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals (incorrectly). |

ISREFThe boolean True or False depending if the value is a cell reference. |

ISTEXTThe boolean True or False depending if the value is text. |

KURTThe kurtosis for a list or array of numbers. |

LARGEThe kth largest value in a list or array of numbers. |

LCM( Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The least common multiple of two or more numbers. |

LEFTThe first or left most characters in a text string. |

LENThe number of characters in a text string. |

LINESTThe array of values for a straight line that best fits your data. |

LNThe natural logarithm of a number. |

LOGThe logarithm of a number to any base. |

LOG10The logarithm of a number to the base 10. |

LOGESTThe array of values for an exponential curve that best fits your data. |

LOGINV(LOGNORM.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a lognormal distribution. |

LOGNORMDIST(LOGNORM.DIST) The cumulative probability function for a lognormal distribution (only cumulative). |

LOOKUPThe value in a row (or column) that matches a value in a column (or row). |

LOWERThe text string with all the characters converted to lowercase. |

MATCHThe position of a value in a list, table or cell range. |

MAXThe largest value in a list or array of numbers. |

MAXAThe largest value in a list or array of numbers (including logical values and text). |

MDETERMThe matrix determinant of an array. |

MDURATION( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The modified duration for a security that pays interest periodically. |

MEDIANThe median value in a list or array of numbers. |

MIDThe characters from the middle of a text string. |

MINThe smallest value in a list or array of numbers. |

MINAThe smallest value in a list or array of numbers (including logical values and text). |

MINUTEThe minute as an integer given a date serial number. |

MINVERSEThe inverse matrix of an array. |

MIRRThe interest rate for a series of unequal cash flows at regular intervals (explicit reinvestment rate). |

MMULTThe matrix product of two arrays. |

MODThe remainder after division. |

MODE(MODE.SNGL) The value that occurs most frequently in a list or array of numbers. |

MONTHThe month as an integer given a date serial number. |

MROUND( Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The number rounded to the desired multiple. |

MULTINOMIAL( Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The multinomial of a set of numbers in a list or cell range. |

NThe value converted to a number. |

NAThe error value #N/A. |

NEGBINOMDIST(NEGBINOM.DIST) The probability distribution function for a negative binomial distribution (no cumulative). |

NETWORKDAYS( Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The total number of working days between two dates excluding weekends and holidays. |

NOMINAL( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The nominal interest rate over a period given an annual interest rate. |

NORMDIST(NORM.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for a normal distribution. |

NORMINV(NORM.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a normal distribution. |

NORMSDIST(NORM.S.DIST) The probability distribution function for a standard normal distribution (no cumulative). |

NORMSINV(NORM.S.INV) The inverse of the probability distribution function for a standard normal distribution. |

NOTThe opposite of a True or False value. |

NOWThe date serial number of the current system date and time. |

NPERThe number of periods for an investment. |

NPVThe net present value of a series of unequal cash flows at regular intervals. |

OCT2BIN( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from octal to binary. |

OCT2DEC( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from octal to decimal. |

OCT2HEX( Analysis ToolPak - Engineering) The number converted from octal to hexadecimal. |

ODDThe number rounded up to the nearest odd integer. |

ODDFPRICE( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period. |

ODDFYIELD( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The yield of a security with an odd first period. |

ODDLPRICE( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period. |

ODDLYIELD( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The yield of a security with an odd last period. |

OFFSETThe value in a cell which is an offset from another cell. |

ORThe logical OR for any number of arguments. |

PEARSONThe pearson product moment correlation coefficient. |

PERCENTILE(PERCENTILE.INC) The number corresponding to a particular percentage from an array of numbers (inclusive). |

PERCENTRANK(PERCENTRANK.INC) The percentage rank of a value in an array of numbers (inclusive). |

PERMUTThe number of permutations for a subset of objects or events. |

PIThe number PI (3.141592). |

PMT( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The full amount (principal + interest) paid every period on a loan with fixed interest. |

POISSON(POISSON.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for a poisson distribution. |

POWERThe number raised to a given power. |

PPMTThe principal amount paid on a given period on a loan with fixed interest. |

PRICE( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price of a security that pays periodic interest. |

PRICEDISC( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price of a discounted security (no interest payments). |

PRICEMAT( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price of a security that pays interest at maturity. |

PROBThe probability that values in a range are between two limits. |

PRODUCTThe product of all the numbers in a list or cell range. |

PROPERThe text string with the first letter of every word as a capital letter. |

PVThe present value of a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals. |

QUARTILE(QUARTILE.INC) The quartile of a data set (inclusive). |

QUOTIENT( Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The integer portion after division. |

RADIANSThe number of radians given the number of degrees. |

RANDThe random number >=0 and <1. |

RANDBETWEEN( Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The random number between two specified numbers (inclusive). |

RANK(RANK.EQ) The rank of a value in a list, table or cell range (in descending order) (equal ranking). |

RATEThe interest rate for a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals. |

RECEIVED( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The amount received at the end when a security is held to maturity. |

REGISTER.ID(Removed in 2003) The result after running an Excel 4.0 Macro function. |

REPLACEThe text string after replacing characters in a specific location. |

REPTThe text string repeated a number of times. |

RIGHTThe last or right most characters in a text string. |

ROMANThe text string converting a binary number to a roman numeral. |

ROUNDThe number rounded to a specified number of digits. |

ROUNDDOWNThe number rounded down to the nearest integer. |

ROUNDUPThe number rounded up to the nearest integer. |

ROWThe row number of a cell reference. |

ROWSThe number of rows in a cell range or reference. |

RSQThe square of pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points in known y's and known x's. |

SEARCHThe starting position of a substring within a larger text string. |

SECONDThe number of seconds as an integer given a date serial number. |

SERIESSUM( Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The sum of a power series based on a formula. |

SIGNThe numerical value indicating if a number is positive or negative. |

SINThe sine of a number. |

SINHThe hyperbolic sine of a number. |

SKEWThe number representing the skewness of a distribution based on a sample. |

SLNThe depreciation of an asset in a single period (straight-line method). |

SLOPEThe slope of a linear regression line through the given data points. |

SMALLThe kth smallest value in a list or array of numbers. |

SQL.REQUEST(Removed in 2003) The result after connecting to a data source and executes a SQL query. |

SQRTThe positive square root of a number. |

SQRTPI( Analysis ToolPak - Maths & Trigonometry) The square root of a number multiplied by PI. |

STANDARDIZEThe normalized value from a distributed characterised by a mean and a standard deviation. |

STDEV(STDEV.S) The standard deviation based on a sample. |

STDEVAThe standard deviation based on a sample (including logical values and text). |

STDEVP(STDEV.P) The standard deviation based on an entire population. |

STDEVPAThe standard deviation based on an entire population (including logical values and text). |

STEYXThe standard error of a regression. |

SUBSTITUTEThe text string after replacing instances of a substring. |

SUBTOTAL(AGGREGATE) The subtotal of values in a list, table or cell range (renamed). |

SUMThe total value of the numbers in a list, table or cell range. |

SUMIF(SUMIFS) The total value of the numbers that satisfies one condition. |

SUMPRODUCTThe sum of the product of one or more arrays of values. |

SUMSQThe sum of the squares of all the values in a list, table or cell range. |

SUMX2MY2The sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. |

SUMX2PY2The sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. |

SUMXMY2The sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays. |

SYDThe depreciation of an asset in a single period (sum-of-years digits method). |

TThe text string of the value given. |

TANThe tangent of a number. |

TANHThe hyperbolic tangent of a number. |

TBILLEQ( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The yield (bond-equivalent) for a treasury bill. |

TBILLPRICE( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The price per $100 face value for a treasury bill. |

TBILLYIELD( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The yield for a treasury bill. |

TDIST(T.DIST.2T) The percentage points probability for the t distribution. |

TEXTThe number as a formatted text string. |

TIMEThe time as a decimal given an hour, minute, second. |

TIMEVALUEThe time as a decimal given a time in text format. |

TINV(T.INV.2T) The t-value of the distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom. |

TODAYThe date serial number representing today's date. |

TRANSPOSEThe array with its orientation changed. |

TRENDThe y-values along a linear trend given a set of x-values. |

TRIMThe text string with all extra spaces removed from the beginning, middle and end. |

TRIMMEANThe mean of the interior of a data set. |

TRUEThe logical value True. |

TRUNCThe number with any decimal places removed. |

TTEST(T.TEST) The probability value from a t distribution. |

TYPEThe number indicating the data type of the value. |

UPPERThe text string with all the characters converted to uppercase. |

VALUE(NUMBERVALUE) The number that a text string represents (renamed). |

VAR(VAR.S) The variance based on a sample. |

VARAThe variance based on a sample (including logical values and text). |

VARP(VAR.P) The variance based on an entire population. |

VARPAThe variance based on an entire population (including logical values and text). |

VDBThe depreciation of an asset in a single period (variable declining balance method). |

VLOOKUPThe value in the same row after finding a matching value in the first column. |

WEEKDAYThe day of the week for a given date. |

WEEKNUM( Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The week number in the year for a given date. |

WEIBULL(WEIBULL.DIST) The probability distribution function OR the cumulative probability function for a weibull distribution. |

WORKDAY( Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The date serial number that is a given number of working days before or after a date. |

XIRR( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate for a series of unequal cash flows at irregular intervals (implicit reinvestment rate). |

XNPV( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The net present value of a series of unequal cash flows at irregular intervals. |

YEARThe year as an integer given a date serial number. |

YEARFRAC( Analysis ToolPak - Date & Time) The number of years as a decimal between two dates. |

YIELD( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate (annual) for a series of equal cash flows at regular intervals. |

YIELDDISC( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate (annual) for a discounted security (no interest payments). |

YIELDMAT( Analysis ToolPak - Financial) The interest rate (annual) for a security that pays interest at maturity. |

ZTEST(Z.TEST) The probability that the supplied hypothesized sample mean is greater than the mean of the supplied data values. |

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